The predisposition for all traits is genetic, although actual expression of genes is the result of environmental exposure. Mendelian and Darwinian theories indicated the importance of genetic inheritance, and sociobiology and evolutionary psychology have accentuated the importance of genetic endowment. However, the study of epigenetics indicates that genetic predisposition for all traits, including character traits, is subject to modifications that “are dynamic and potentially reversible processes occurring throughout the lifetime” (Gonzalez-Pardo & Perez Alvarez, 2013, p. 10).
“Epigenetics is changing the widely accepted linear conception of genome function by explaining how environmental and psychological factors regulate the activity of our genome without involving changes in the DNA sequence. Research has identified epigenetic mechanisms mediating between environmental and psychological factors that contribute to normal and abnormal behavioral development” (p. 3).